This set of 91 laws are in print about 40 pages (~30x28cm//8x12 inch)
They are interpreted by national organisations in extensive additional
codebooks ( different names, i.e. orange book )
The Revised 2008 Laws of Duplicate Bridge have no official status (yet).
(see below). They are short and well structured.
They intend to promote bridge by eliminating restricting
rules, introduce tools for easier bidding, but do not touch the very substance
of the bridge game. They were compiled by Paul Hauff.
Players and clubs are free to adapt these laws
2 0 0 8 revised L A W S
G E N E R A L D E S C R I P T I O N
1. DuplicateBridge is a mind sport which unites people of all kinds, nations, races and religions in a peaceful competition.
2. Duplicate is played by four or more persons .where two form a pair which acts as entity and have an other entity as opponent.
3. The cardplay consists of joining 52 previous distributed cards (deal) to 13 tricks and attributing values (scores) to each trick.
4. The chief object is to obtain a higher score than other contestants.
5. The minimum competition consists of eight cardplays with different onus (vulnerability), where fortuitousness is eliminated.
6. Deals are kept in containers (board) to make replay possible for more than two entitys.
7. Duplicate is played at home and many players join a local organisation (Tournament Organiser ) to play against several other pairs within a competition.
8. A Tournament Director does the necessary work which is needed to run a competition.
9. Players agree voluntarily to follow the set rules. If there are no rules, players will regulate details in the general sense of this law.
D E F I N I T I O N S
#D1 TOURNAMENT ORGANISER and TD
The Tournament Organiser is an entity defined by and subordinated to national law and consisting of one person or group of persons. One of his activities is to organize and put into effect bridge tournaments. He accepts the laws and regulations herein outlined. He nominates the Tournamen Director (TD)
The Tournament Director has the sole and full power to do or initiate all activities to run a competition of two tables or more. He is bound to the laws and regulations mentioned herein. The TD might be a player.
The four players of a cardplay (flight) sitting at a table are called North, East, South and East (clockwise). The four players at each table constitute two partnerships (entity or sides) North-South against East-West. In pair or team competitions the contestants enter as pairs or teams respectively and retain the same partnerships throughout a competition (except in the case of substitutions authorised by the Director). In individual events each player enters separately, and partnerships change during a competition. In events with an odd number of pairs, the missing pair might be substituted by an synthetic pair named " phantom pair ".
#D3 THE PACK - RANK OF CARDS AND SUITS
Duplicate Bridge is played with a pack of 52 cards, consisting of 13 cards in each of four suits. The suits rank downward in the order spades , hearts , diamonds , clubs . The Cards of each suit rank downward in the Order Ace, King, Queen, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2.
#D4 THE DUPLICATE BOARDS
A duplicate board containing a pack is provided by the TO for each cardplay. Each board is numbered and has four pockets to hold the four hands, designated North, East, South and West. The dealer and vulnerability are designated as follows:
North Dealer Boards 1 5 9 13 East Dealer Boards 2 6 10 14 South Dealer Boards 3 7 11 15 West Dealer Boards 4 8 12 16
The same sequence is repeated for Boards 17-32 and for each subsequent group of 16 boards. No board that fails to conform to these conditions should be used. If such board is used, however, the conditions marked on it apply for that session.
#D5 THE BIDDING BOX
The bidding box, resp. its content makes silent bidding possible. All calls are done by using printed bidding cards They are: pass, double, redouble, or the nominal bid wich specifies the desired number of overtricks together with suit or notrump. Bid cards showing the same number of overtricks are said to be of the same level.
#D6 CARDPLAY, GAME, PARTSCORE
A cardplay consist of joining 52 previous distributed cards (deal) to 13 tricks and attributing values (scores) to each trick. A trick score of 100 points or more, made on one board, is called GAME. A trick score of less than 100 points is called PARTSCORE.
#D7 HEADINGS AND WORDS
Headings, braceted numbers and signs are not part of the law rsp. rules and serve for better findig. The words competition, contest, event, tournament have the same meaning unless specified.
#D8 ONE TABLE TOURNAMENT
The modern one table tournament replaces the former rubber procedure. It eliminates fourtuitousness. Standard procedure: played are boards 1-4 from both sides. Boardsd might be neutralised to prevent recognition of boards by their outer apperance. The set of boards may include boards whose results will be omitted for winner finding. One of the player has the funciton of TD for the first inning of four cardplays, the other side for the replay ( second inning) from the other side. Adapted boardtraveler are used to note down the result. Winner is : the side with the highest summed up score, orthe side having more better results per cardplay then the other.
G E N E R A L P R I N C I P L E S
#P1 Observance of Laws
Duplicate bridge tournaments should be played in strict accordance with the Laws. The chief object is to obtain a higher score than other contestants whilst complying with the lawful procedures and ethical standards set out in these laws.
#P2 Basic Pocedueres and routines
All actions involving all four contestants must be done in rotation, clockwise. The obligation to follow suit takes precedence over all other requirements of these Laws. Communication between partners during the auction and play shall be effected only by means of calls and plays. alls and plays should be made without undue emphasis, mannerism or inflection, and without undue hesitation or haste.
#P3 Infraction of Law
1. A player must not infringe a law intentionally, If he does so, the penalty is one trick.
2. There is no obligation to draw attention to an unintentionally infraction of law committed by one’s own side.
3. A player may not attempt to conceal an infraction, as by committing a second revoke, concealing a card involved in a revoke or mixing the cards prematurely ( penalty).
#P4 PENALTY AND ADAPTION
The regular penalty is realised by deducting one trick. If this law shows a penalty for special cases, such penalty will prevail. If players infringe a law unintentionally, players and TD will agree as follows: a pair or team is no way at fault; partially at fault; at fault, then the penalty will consist in awarding an artificial score as mentioned in table below, see SECTION III TD .
C S E C T I O N I , C A R D P L A Y
#C1 SHUFFLING & DEALING
A. Antique form: Before play starts, each pack is thoroughly shuffled. The cards must be dealt face down, one card at a time, into four hands of thirteen cards each; each hand is then placed face down in one of the four pockets of the board. A member of each side should be present during the shuffle and deal.
B. New forms The cards are laid based on outprints of computer generated deals, either at the table by the contestants, or in advance by the TD. Outprint might remain systemborn or selected by the TD.
The Director may require a different method of dealing or pre-dealing to produce bords with identical deals.
#C2 CONTROL OF BOARD AND CARDS PRIOR TO AUCTION
A. Placement of Board When a board is to be played it is placed in the centre of the table until play starts. B. Removal of Cards from Board 1. At the begin of the auction each player takes a hand from the pocket corresponding to his compass position. 2. Each player counts his cards face down to be sure he has exactly thirteen; after that, and before making a call, he must inspect the faces of his cards. 3. During play each player retains possession of his own cards, not permitting them to be mixed with those of any other player. No player shall touch any cards other than his own. C. Returning Cards to Board After play has finished, each player restores them to the pocket corresponding to his compass position. Thereafter no hand shall be removed from the board unless a member of each side, or the Director, is present.
C3 missing / not used / reserve
#C4 THE AUCTION
a) All calls are done by using printed bidding cards, which show one of the following cards: pass, double, redouble, alert, and the nominal bid wich specifies the desired number of overtricks together with suit or notrump. The rank in descending order is notrump; spades; hearts, diamonds; clubs. The bidding is silent and remains silent untill the end of the cardply.
b) The player designated by the board as dealer makes the first call, followed by the next bid in rotation.
Any nominal bid must overrules the previous bid. The last bid stands, if it is followed by three passes, and the bidder becomes the declarer. Any norminal bid might be effected togehter with an alert card or not; but only when partners previous bid had shown an other denomination.
Alert cards remain on the table until the end of the auction.
Any norminal bid might be effected togehter with a STOP card; but only when the previous bid had been two levels lower. The next in turn to bid might retain his bid until the stop card is removed, but he is free to play immediately.
c) A player may double only the last preceding bid. A player may redouble only the last preceding double. Any double or redouble is superseded by a subsequent legal bid.
d) Scoring a Doubled or Redoubled Contract If a doubled or redoubled bid is not followed by a subsequent legal bid, scoring values are increased as provided in SECTION II.
e) An insufficient bid is taken as "final pass" and the contestant and his partner cannot bid anymore.
f) A bid or pass out of rotation is void. Players must restart in the correct order.
g) If all four contestants pass, there is no redeal and no cardplay.
h) The auction is silent and no explanation as to the meaning of the bidding cards must be given.
i) A player may leaving opponents uncertain of the intended contract.
C5 C A R D P L A Y
#C51 COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY
The defender on declarer’s left makes the opening lead face down. All bidding cards are removed to the bidding boxes. After the opening lead is faced, dummy spreads his hand in front of him on the table, face up, sorted into suits, the cards in order of rank with lowest ranking cards towards declarer, and in columns pointing lengthwise towards declarer. Trumps are placed to dummy’s right. Declarer plays both his hand and that of dummy.
#52 SEQUENCE AND ORDER OF CARDPLAY
The player who leads to a trick may play any card in his hand After the lead, each other player in turn plays a card, and the four cards so played constitute a trick. In playing to a trick, each player must follow suit if possible. If unable to follow suit, a player may play any card. Failure to follow suit constitutes a revoke. A trick containing a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the highest trump. A trick that does not contain a trump is won by the player who has contributed to it the highest card of the suit led. The lead to the next trick is from the hand in which the last trick was won. Cardplay ends when the last trick has been played,either effective or by claim.
#53 CARDPLAY - PROCEDURES
a) Declarer plays a card from dummy by naming or touching a card, after which dummy picks up the card and faces it on the table. In playing from dummy’s hand declarer may, if necessary, pick up the desired card himself. Declarer can correct dummis action any time without hesitation. If declarer has led out of turn from his or dummy’s hand, either defender may accept the lead or require its retraction. If the defenders choose differently the option expressed by the player next in turn shall prevail.
b) Declarer plays his card by detaching it from his hand and facing it on the table immediately before him, when it is his turn to play. Declarer might restore his card and play another, even if its face has been seen by other contestant, at any time, but without hesitation and the next trick has not been played.
c) Each defendant plays a card by detaching it from his hand and facing it on the table immediately before him, when it is his turn to play. If the face was seen by other contestants must be played, if not the card might be restored. A player may change an unintended designation if he does so without pause for thought and the card has not touched the table, and the declarer agrees.
e) A card seen or played out of turn must be restored and results to a penalty ( deduction of one trick ) . The other contestant may allow to restore without penalty, if all agree.
#C54 INSPECTION OF TRICKS AND ARRANGEMENT
So long as his side has not led or played to the next trick, declarer or either defender may, until he has turned his own card face down on the table, require that all cards just played to the trick be faced. Until a card is led to the next trick, declarer or either defender may inspect, but not expose, his own last card played. When four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns his own card face down near him on the table. 1. If the player’s side has won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward his partner. 2. If the opponents have won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward the opponents. Each player arranges his own cards in an orderly overlapping row in the sequence played, so as to permit review of the play after its completion, if necessary to determine the number of tricks won by each side or the order in which the cards were played.
#C55 DUMMY’S RIGHTS AND DUTIES
He may suggest a play, but only silent by touching a card with his forefinger. He then must play this or an other dummycard by order of the declare. Other rights : Dummy may ask declarer (but not a defender) when he has failed to follow suit to a trick whether he has a card of the suit led. He may try to prevent any irregularity by declarer. Dummy may call attention to not following suit before and after constitution. Dummy may call attention to irregularity by opponents. Dummy must not participate in the play, nor may he communicate anything about the play to declarer except by the actions mentioned above.
#C56 AGREEMENT ON RESULTS OF PLAY
a) After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected to settle a claim of a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost; but no player should handle cards other than his own. A player should not disturb the order of his played cards until agreement has been reached on the number of tricks won. A player who fails to comply with the provisions of this Law looses his right to claim ownership of doubtful tricks or to claim (or deny) a revoke.
b) Agreement on Tricks Won The number of tricks won shall be agreed upon before all four hands have been returned to the board. A player must not knowingly accept either the score for a trick that his side did not win or the concession of a trick that his opponents could not lose.
C) Disagreement on Tricks Won
If a subsequent disagreement arises, the Director must be called, then: the Director rules what score is to be recorded.
If all player have agreed on result, it must be documented in writing, containing the following:
a) played from (compass direction) b) contract (short); c) result, made or number of tricks ,d) pair number NS; e) score NS ; f) score EW, g) pair number EW. If one of the scores is a zeroscore, writing down migth be omitted. The written document (board traveler) must be kept together with the board to enable all players see the result of other contestants. The player seated North should care for the documentation and control of correctnes of hands.
At the end of the competition the board traverler id forwarded to the TD. All players are entitled to receive a copy of all boardtravelers either paper or electronic. The TD will keep these documents for one week, or as set by the TO. The TO and TD might establich additional rules and anotations with each traveler.
#C58 CLAIM OR CONCESSION OF TRICKS
Any statement to the effect that a contestant will win a specific number of tricks is a claim of those tricks. A contestant also claims when he suggests that play be curtailed, or when he shows his cards. If an opponent of the claimer requests that the claimed rest of the cardplay has to go on, the claimer must folow. A claim must be accompanied at once by a clear statement as to the order in which cards will be played, of the line of play or defence through which the claimer proposes to win the tricks claimed.
If the claim or concession is agreed, play ceases.The board is scored as though the tricks claimed or conceded had been won or lost in play.
The Tournament Organiser may establish additional regulation to the processing of claims.
I R R E G U L A F R I T I E S
#C61 R E V O K E A player must correct his revoke if he becomes aware of his irregularity if the next trick has not been started. He must replace the card played by any card which follows suit. Each player of the non-offendig side may withdraw and return to his hand any card he may have played after the revoke. Once a revoke is made and has not been detected or claimend by a player the trick on which the revoke ocurred stand as played. If detected and claimed there is a penalty of two tricks. If the offending side did not win the revoke trick and no subsequent trick, then there is no penalty. On the twelfth trick, a revoke, even if establihed must be corrected if discovered, before all four hands are returned to the board.
#C62 OPENING LEAD OUT OF TURN A lead out of turn might be accepted by declarer. Dummy plays then card as declarer. Not accepted results to penalty (1 trick), and the lead must be played from the correct direction. Declarer may not allow to play a card which sbows the same suit as the wrong lead card.
#C63 HANDS CHANGED When a board has been played and the contestants do restore the hands in the not ordered compass direction (penalty 1 trick), the next flight must reset the original deal and inform the TD. The TD will then assign a just score to the detecting flight. If the next flight does not detect the error, an the error is detected later, both sides will earn zero-score. The TD may neutralize all results of this board by assigning a zero score to all contestants, but the penalty for the infraction pair stands.
#C64 OUT OF TURN A card seen or played out of turn must be restored and results to a penalty (deduction of one trick ). The other contestant may allow to restore without penalty, if all agree.
#C65 NOT FOLLOWED If a player does not follow the rules and laws set up in SECTION I any player may call attention to this fact. The play stops and all four player reestablish the correct procedure in mutual agreement. All four players will not try to take advantage by settling. If one side belives that the infraction is of disadvantage to his result, it may call the director who restores the correct procedure and a penalty is given ( one trick ), unless ther director decides otherwise.
C7 a b o u t s y s t e m s
#C71 SYSTEM CARD Unless the Regulating Authority provides otherwise a player may consult his own system card during the auction period until the end of play. Thw timw is limited to 30 seconds.
#C72 PLAYERS SYSTEMIC AGREEMENTS
a) Partnership understandings as to the methods adopted by a partnership may be reached explicitly in discussion or implicitly through mutual experience or awareness of the players.
All rights arising from such understandig are sole property of both partners.
Information conveyed to partner during cardplay must arise from the cardplay and conditions of the current competition.
b) Partnerships have no obligation to disclose such understandings or any other information about their hands to opponents or other persons. Information give voluntarily to the other players give no rights to such persons .
c) The tournament organiser migth keep a list, where partnerships give information as to their understandings or usually used proceedings in cardplay. Such information might be expressed in terms of public know bidding an playing systems. The tournament organiser might deduct such information from record of played tournaments, or given freely to them by entities .
Playersd entering a competition must have acess to such information.
No right whatsoever can be deducted from such information.
S E C T I O N II
SCORING AND WINNDER FINDING
#W1 SCORE VALUE
If two pairs compete, one side makes a score from 50 upwards, ond the other side makes a zero score. If all four players pass, each side enters a zero score. In cases of missing scores and similar, the score is set by the TD. The nominal value of scores might be zero or higher, even for both sides.
#W2 WINNER FINDING
Two ways possible: a: by summing up original scores, modified or not. The modification can be effected by taking the difference between two scores deducting there from special points ( called IMP, International matchpoint, or other). b: comparing scores by value and deducting therefrom matchpoints, or "one point per cardplay" won.
#W3 DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING TABLE (old Law 77) TRICK SCORE Scored by declarer's side if the contract is fulfilled. IF TRUMPS ARE: club diamond heart spade For each odd trick bid and made Undoubled 20 20 30 30 Doubled 40 40 60 60 Redoubled 80 80 120 120
AT A NO TRUMP CONTRACT . For first odd trick bid and made Undoubled 40 Doubled 80 Redoubled 160 For each additional odd trick Undoubled 30 Doubled 60 Redoubled 120
A trick score of 100 points or more, made on one board, is GAME. A trick score of less than 100 points is a PARTSCORE.
PREMIUM SCORE Scored by declarer's side SLAMS For making a slam Not Vulnerable Vulnerable Small Slam (12 tricks) 500 750 bid and made
GRAND SLAM (all 13 tricks) 1000 1500 bid and made
For each OVERTRICK Not Vulnerable Vulnerable (tricks made in excess of contract) Undoubled Trick Value 100 Doubled 200 Redoubled 400
PREMIUMS FOR GAME, PARTSCORE, FULFILLING CONTRACT For making GAME vulnerable 500 For making GAME, not vulnerable 300 For making any PARTSCORE 50 For making any doubled, but not redoubled contract 50 For making any redoubled contract 100
UNDERTRICK PENALTIES Scored by declarer's opponents if the contract is not fulfilled
UNDERTRICKS Tricks by which declarer falls short of the contract Not Vulnerable Vulnerable For first undertrick Undoubled 50 100 Doubled 100 200 Redoubled 200 400
Bonus for the fourth and each subsequent undertrick
Undoubled 0 0 Doubled 0 100 Redoubled 0 200
If all four players pass each side enters a zero score.
#W4 METHODS OF SCORING (old law 78 )
A. Matchpoint Scoring
In matchpoint scoring each contestant is awarded, for scores made by different contestants who have played the same board and whose scores are compared with his, two scoring units (matchpoints or half matchpoints) for each score inferior to his, one scoring unit for each score equal to his, and zero scoring units for each score superior to his.
B. International Matchpoint Scoring In international matchpoint scoring, on each board the total point difference between the two scores compared is converted into IMPs according to the following scale.
Difference Difference Difference in points IMPs in points IMPs in points IMPs
In total point scoring, the net total point score of all boards played is the score for each contestant.
#W6 COMPARING RESULTS / PERFORMANCE
Results are compared by listing the scores, MPs, and IMPs in the winneres list.
P e r f o r m a n c e : Players like to have a general idea about their perfomance. Matchpoint scoring has the effect, that each board shows a theoretical maximum MP value, if only one pair has the highest score, the TOP. This value depends on the number of cardplays documented in the traveler. If we sum the MP-TOP values of all boards in a tournament, we may use this value as 100 percent base for comparing. We may now compare the total of MP won by a pair to the theoretical
TOP-MP-value. It is the general belief that making 50 % auf this TOP, a pair performance is average. IMP-pair scoring shows within a board traveler no theoretical IMP-TOP. There may be a highest score, but the value of such score depends mainly from the possibilities of a given distribution and the capacity of a pair to make a high score.
We may take these highest scores as born-IMP-TOPs, sum them up to a total within a tournament and consider this as a 100 percent performance. We may now compare the total of IMP won by a pair to the the born-TOP-MP-value.
Total-Point Tournamnent might be handled the same way as IMPs.
S E C T I O N III
O R G A N I Z I N G C O M P E T I T I O N S
#TO Tournament Organisers (TO) Activities and Responsabilities (related to the Duplicate Bridge game ) incomplete.
#TO 01 The Tournament Organisers might enter contractual obligation with other entities, inclusive regional and national organisations. Such obligations must not interfere with these laws and rules.
#TO 02 The TO decides the type of tournament to be played at a certain date and time.
#TO 03 The Tournament Organiser nominates the Tournament Director.
#TO 04 The TO may implement an appeals committee and set the necessary rules
#TO 05 The TO regulates the acces and presenc of spectators
#TO 06 CLUB POINTS The TO implements a Clubs -point system (CP). Such system should give advantage to tournaments where fortuitousness is eliminated. The TO should maintain an own system with the intent to establish a ranking system for the own menbers.
#TO 07 REALISING TOURNAMENTS The Tournament Organizer (TO) should publish Conditions of tournaments in advance of a tournament or contest. These should detail conditions of entry, methods of scoring, determination of winners, breaking of ties, and the like. The conditions must not conflict with law or regulation and shall incorporate any information specified by the TO They should be available to contestants.
#TO 08 TYPES OF TOURNAMENT 1. by number of persons: pair tournament; team of four persons ; individual tournament, where pairs are formed by two changing persons within one or more cardplays. 2. by methods of winner finding: a) Total-point tournaments (TP), where the maximum of scores wins. b) Matchpoin-tournaments, where having a higher score then the other contesting pairs wins, transformed into MP (matchpoints). c) IMP -pair tournaments, where the maximun of modified score-sums wins. ( also known as Butler, datum-score events). The score of a pair is compared to the median (vugdo average) of all Scores in a board, the difference is taken and transformed into IMPs. d) IMP team-of four tournaments. 3. by procedures considering elimination of fortuitousness: a) Procedures for "pair against pair" movements: In a Mitchell tournament, players do not change compass direction (positiv); in a Howell tournament, all players change compass direction (negativ). So called"srambledMitchels" are Howell type (negativ). b) procedures for "team of four" movements (all positiv). Basic competition: one team plays against another team. (A versus B). The number of cardplays should be more than four . Round Robin: a competition, where all teams play againt all other teams and every team plays all boards. Other: Swiss Teams , Knockout contests, and more 4. by type of deals : using handmade deals using random generated deals using selected parts of random generated des using deals of old tournaments,
#TO 09 COMPARING TOURNAMENTS The TO may establish Systems to compare results of tournaments. Such system may employ Victory points to describe the strenght of team in relation to other teams by IMPs won in different tournaments.
#TO 10 NUMBER OF ROUNDS/ TIME A tournament should have a minimum of eight cardplays played from both sides, or 16 mitchell-type cardplays. One-table tournaments need boards 1-4 played from both sides. Players must have sufficient time to play, if necessary a play must be put to the end of a competition.
#TO 11 DIMENSION The number of tables incorporated in a tournament should consider the abilities of the players. High performers, middle performers and beginners should not compete inside the same competition. The TO should set rules for hierarquies and the conditions for moving up or down. If the number of tables is not sufficient for such division, the "stratification system" is recommended. To sum up results of several tournamnet, different seize (number of tables) should be considered.
#TO 12 END OF A TOURNAMENT A tournament ends, when the winners list has been published, unless the conditions of contest say otherwise.
#TO 13. ERROR IN COM PUTING 1. An error in computing or tabulating the agreed-upon score, whether made by a player or operator, may be corrected until the expiration of the period specified by the Tournament Organizer. Unless the Tournament Organizer specifies a later time, this Correction Period expires 30 minutes after the official score has been made available for inspection. 2. Regulations may provide for circumstances in which a scoring error may be corrected after expiry of the Correction Period if the Director and the Tournament Organizer are both satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the record is wrong.
TD Tournament Directors Activities (TD)
#TD 1 RESONSIBLE The TD is responsible for the on-site technical management of the competition. He has powers to remedy any omissions of the Tournament Organizer.He nominates assistants.
#TD 2 BOUND BY LAW The Director applies, and is bound by, these Laws and supplementary regulations announced under authority given in these Laws.
#TD 3 OTHER METHODS The TO may approve and adopt other scoring methods if these laws have no solution. Example: conversions of IMPs to Victory Points, scores given to the other side of phantom pair ( sit-in-table)
#TD 4 ONR TABLE COMPETITION The TD helps, informs and assists members and members-to-be of all aspects of the Duplicate. He directs a service to provide boards which include the details of played competition: He provides tables for beginners and members-to-be at the premises of the TO.
T W O & m o r e T a b l e c o m p e t i o n s
#TD 5 PAIR NUMBEr The TD assigns a identifying number (pair number) to each contestant In keeping records of participants he pais attention to the personal right of each contestant related to the public use of his name. Players may use a "nom de guerre" for publication in the winners list.
#TD 6 TABLES Tables are numbered in a sequence established by the Director. He designates one direction as North; other compass directions assume the normal relationship to North.
#TD 7 MOVEMENT For the intended competition the TD assigns for each pair where to sit (table and compass direction), when to play (round) and opponent for each cardplay (movement). Any movement shoud fix that if possible every pair plays against all other pairs, and every pair plays all boards. The TD keeps written record of the movement employed. He administers table cards , movement cards and alike.
#TD 8 ARTIFICIAL SCORE a) The TD awards an "artificial score" if the normal play of a board is not possible. Examples: wrong bord played; board played from the other compass direction; hands have changed compass direction. He takes into consideration that both sides may be at fault and responsible: or one side only; or none of both sides, and he fixes the score accordingly. b) The TD is free to make his decision only after all pairs have played the board. c) He takes into consideration the chances of obtaining a favorble result, ans considers the playweight of the deal, which has influence to the contract made by NS or EW, or giving chances of winning a contract to both sides, including undertrick defences. The TD will also consider the known capacity or internal ranking of the contestants. He will then decide on the artificial scorevalue to be included in the board-traveler or the resp. document.
d) R E C O M M E N D E D A R T I F I C I A L S C O R E S and I M P s
RANGE no wayat fault partially at fault all at fault
e) In Total Point events, values under d) ar recommended. f) If in IMP-pair events, recommended scores conforme d) cannot be applied in the board traveler, IMPs should be awarded as under D (braqueted) g) In competitions where the winner is found by transforming scores to matchpoints, the TD might assign matchpoints instead of scores as mentioned above. He will employ 40% of a boards top for pairs at fault, 50% for partially at fault and 60% for noway at fault. He will consider that the 40/50/60 decision is less exact than the use of scores. f) In cases of team of four play, scores or IMPs as shown in d) must be used. g) The TD awards the scores in cases where a pair meets an phantom pair.
#TD 9 Time The director may establish time limits for a cardplay. Such limits must give sufficient time for all species of players.
#TD 10 PROCEDURAL PENALTIES The Director may also assess procedural penalties for any offence that unduly delays or obstructs the game, inconveniences other contestants, violates correct procedure either in matchpoints, IMPs or score values. (old law 90 )
#TD 11 DISCIPLINARY PENALTIES In performing his duty to maintain order and discipline, the Director is empowered to assess disciplinary penalties. He may suspend a contestant for the current competition or parts thereof. The Director’s decision under this clause is final and may not be overruled by an appeals committee. (old law 91 )
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This set of rules is a contribution by Paul Hauff, firstded on the first of August 2008, for the progress of duplicate bridge. Comments are welcome. Write to